Basic photography techniques

basic photography techniques – final

this is my report about the Basic Photography Techniques.


Skills of the 21st century learners

Internet has provided a plethora of information being catered by the web users.  Many sites are used for their convenience regarding school activities, communication and correspondence to relatives in far places, and many more things to mention.

The internet has transformed our everyday lives, changing us positively to be a more productive student/professional by making use of different educational website, social networking sites or other websites wherein we can use it for our other needs.

As I wander in the internet’s web, I go through a website ( which has its defined skills of the 21st century learners.  And these skills are:

  • Ways of thinking.Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning
  • Ways of working.Communication and collaboration
  • Tools for working. Information and communications technology (ICT) and information literacy
  • Skills for living in the world.Citizenship, life and career, and personal and social responsibility.


Being a 21st century learner, I enjoy various benefits in being familiar and a user of the technology in my everyday life. But as I reflect on the things I’ve searched, I came to realize that I don’t possess all of the cited skills in the categories.

I do believe that I am not that much of an expert in using different tools, and making use of different websites in the internet.   For an instance, when there is a project or homework which needs profound research, I tend to copy these information on the first site that I have visited not thinking that there are also reliable sites that contain more information regarding the topic.  But after reflecting on this weakness, I will be able to adjust and amend my habit during searching in the internet to make my project or homework more accurate.

But I am sure that I also possess skills which are vital in using the internet, for example,  i am aware of the etiquette in using social networking sites, i respect and support anti-bullying to social networkers and I do believe in proper and deferential communication among others.

So why do we have to have all the 21st century learning skills?  Because it would make us more equipped technology users and creative and competitive in our future professions.

It’s A Tech Thing (Terms used in Educational Technology)


Adaptive learning

Software that adapts its content and pacing to the current knowledge level of the user, so it’s almost like having a personal tailor for your education.

Evaluating a learner’s actual skill or knowledge level based on the expected skill or knowledge for a person in the same job, position, or assignment.

Assessment item
A questionnaire or measurable activity used to determine if the learner has mastered a learning objective.

Asynchronous learning

A student-centered teaching method that uses online resources to facilitate learning without requiring students and instructors

Authoring tool
Software application used to produce interactive learning materials that bring together all components of a course, such as text presentation, graphics, tracking, and links.

Blog (web log)
A web page that serves as a publicly accessible personal journal for an individual. Typically updated daily, blogs often reflect the personality of the author.

To simultaneously send the same message to multiple recipients. Broadcasting is a useful feature in e-mail systems.

Transferring learning content to many learners simultaneously, as in a satellite broadcast or an IP multicast. In an IP multicast, numerous learners can participate in a learning event that is broadcast over the network using the Internet Protocol from a single source.

Recognition and acceptance as a qualified professional in a specific area. Certification comes after the learner has successfully completed training and has passed an assessment with a minimum acceptable score. To increase validity and assure authentication, the certification process should be overseen by an independent agent.

Scheduled learning event that can take place at a centralized location or in a virtual environment.

Cognitive level
A designation that identifies the knowledge and skills (mental or physical) a learner must display to prove mastery of a given reusable information object (RIO).

Computer-based training (CBT)
Any instructional event that can be accessed via a standalone computer.

Content item
Information stored in a database and used to communicate skills or knowledge. It can be in any media format, including text, graphics, animation, video, audio, and HTML plug-in. It is combined with practice items and assessment items to create a RIO.

Course Management System (CMS)(aka Learning Management System — LMS)
Software that automates the administration of a class web site. These often include modules for online class discussions, grade books, homework turn-in and pickup, class calendars, and tools to make it easy to upload documents and link to electronic course reserves.

The broadcasting of data over a wide area via radio waves. It most often refers to supplemental information sent by television stations along with digital television, but may also be applied to digital signals on analog TV or radio. It generally does not apply to data which is inherent to the medium, such as PSIP data which defines virtual channels for DTV ordirect broadcast satellite systems; or to things like cable modem or satellite modem, which use a completely separate channel for data.

Datacasting often provides newsweathertrafficstock market, and other information which may or may not relate to the program[s] it is carried with. It may also be interactive, such as gamingshopping, or education. An electronic program guide is usually included, although this stretches the definition somewhat, as this is often considered inherent to the digital broadcast standard.

Digital audio
Refers to the reproduction and transmission of sound stored in a digital format. This includes CDs as well as any sound files stored on a computer. In contrast, the telephone system (but not ISDN) is based on an analog representation of sound.

Digital editing
Editing a portion of a movie by digitizing one or more frames and altering them electronically or combining them with other digitized images, and then printing the modified frame.

Discussion boards
Forums on the Internet or an intranet where users can post messages for others to read.

Any method of providing education. Methods include instructor-led training, Web-based distance learning, online laboratories, CD-ROMs, interactive TV, videos, and books.

Distance learning
Situation in which the instructor and students are separated by time, location, or both. Courses are delivered to remote locations via synchronous or asynchronous means.

Information and graphics that have been organized in electronic or computerized lessons or chapters and made available via computer.

E-learning (electronic learning)
Term covering a wide set of applications and processes, such as web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, CD-ROM, and more.
Education via the Internet, network, or standalone computer. Network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. e-learning refers to using electronic applications and processes to learn. e-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM.

Electronic classroom
A classroom equipped with multimedia devices that are used to enhance learning.

Any method used to gather information about the impact or effectiveness of a learning event. Measurements might be used to improve the offering, determine if the learning objectives were achieved, or determine if the offering has been of value to the organization.

Interaction between the learner and the instructor or system. Feedback increases the quality of the learning experience.

Information structured like hypertext, that also includes sound, images, animation or video.

Intellectual property
An idea, invention, formula, literary work, presentation, or other knowledge asset owned by an organization or individual. Intellectual property can be protected by patents, trademarks, service marks, and/or copyrights.

Instructional technology

Combining education and technology to enhance a curriculum. Instructors can alter how they deliver content to students depending on the technology available at their school.

Interactive media
Allows for a two-way interaction or exchange of information.

An international network first used to connect education and research networks, begun by the US government. The Internet now provides communication and application services to an international base of businesses, consumers, educational institutions, governments, and research organizations.

Instructional designer (ID)
An individual who, using systematic methodology and instructional theory, creates content for learning events.

Instructor-led training (ILT)
A scheduled event conducted by an instructor, either in a classroom or on the network. Sometimes called leader-led training (LLT) or lecture/lab training (if the course includes hands-on lab exercises).

Anyone who accesses information to increase his or her skills and knowledge.

Learning object
A reusable, media-independent collection of information used as a modular building block for e-learning content. Learning objects are most effective when organized by a meta data classification system and stored in a data repository such as an LCMS.  A learning object has been defined as: Any entity, digital or non-digital, that may be used for learning, education or training Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning Web-based interactive chunks of e-learning designed to explain a stand-alone learning objective” “A digitized entity which can be used, reused or referenced during technology supported learning.”

Learning platforms
Internal or external sites often organized around tightly focused topics, which contain technologies (ranging from chat rooms to groupware) that enable users to submit and retrieve information.

Learning portal
Any web site that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learning and training resources from multiple sources. Operators of learning portals are also called content aggregators, distributors, or hosts.

The transmission of information to more than one recipient. For example, sending an e-mail message to a list of people. Teleconferencing and videoconferencing can also use multicasting.

Encompasses interactive text, images, sound, and color. Multimedia can be anything from a simple PowerPoint slide slow to a complex interactive simulation.

Online learning
Learning delivered by web-based or internet-based technologies. See web-based training and internet-based training.

PDF (Portable Document Format)
File format developed by Adobe Systems to enable users of any hardware or software platform to view documents exactly as they were created — with fonts, images, links, and layouts as they were originally designed.

Practice item
A question or learning activity that gives learners immediate feedback, allowing them to determine whether they can apply the skills and knowledge just learned in a RIO.

Activities that reinforce the material being learned and give the learner an opportunity to apply skills and knowledge. Some practices provide feedback and mentoring. The learner’s performance may or may not be affected by the results of the practice activities. Practice activities include case studies, learning activities, practice quizzes, practice tests, testing quizzes, and practice labs.

Prescriptive learning
Matching a learner with offerings designed to fill gaps in the learner’s knowledge and skills.

Private sector
Any business or organization that is not a member of the public sector (public education or government agency). public sector Any public education or government agency.

Real-time communication
Communication in which information is received at (or nearly at) the instant it’s sent. Real-time communication is a characteristic of synchronous learning.

Using feedback to increase a learner’s knowledge and skills relative to a specific learning objective

Reusable information object (RIO)
A collection of content, practice, and assessment items based on a learning objective.

Reusable learning object (RLO)
Information, based on RIOs, overviews, summaries, and assessments, that supports a specific learning objective.

Self assessment
Process in which the learner determines his or her level of knowledge and skills.

Self-paced learning
Learning in which the pace and timing of content delivery are determined by the learner.

Highly interactive applications that allow the learner to model or role-play in a scenario. Simulations enable the learner to practice skills or behaviors in a risk-free environment.

Subject-matter expert (SME)
An individual who has substantial knowledge about and skills in a specific subject.

Synchronous learning
A real-time, instructor-led online learning event in which all participants are logged on at the same time and communicate directly with each other. In this virtual classroom setting, the instructor maintains control of the class, with the ability to “call on” participants. In most platforms, students and teachers can use a whiteboard to see work in progress and share knowledge. Interaction may also occur via audio- or videoconferencing, internet telephony, or two-way live broadcasts.


Providing every student with a laptop or tablet to make learning more individualized, increase independence, and extend academics beyond the classroom.

Virtual classroom (VC)
A scheduled offering that is available at multiple locations (either desktop or classroom) via a network.

Web-based training (WBT)
Any instructional event that can be accessed via the Internet or the Web.

Educational websites

Wandering in the internet’s web exposes us to a smorgasbord of various ideas and creations.  Offering almost everything, one might not even notice that they are already adhered into it.

The internet has provided both the teacher and the students a wide array of information.  Learning has become convenient, and comprehensive, not to mention that it is also confusing.  Because of the invention of “copy-paste”, students tend to copy the information gathered and tend to forget that they are copyrighted by the blogger or by the website itself, making the student or anyone to commit plagiarism.

The only thing is that even though internet partially has everything, it won’t give you everything that you want unless you know how to use it.

So, does it serve its purpose in educating?  Yes and no.  It does, and it will educate you.  But to achieve that, you have to learn “how” to learn.  The internet does not aim to replace the library; in fact, it is a library on its own.  The internet is one big chain of restaurants; you have to be able to sort out which would cater your tongue, and which are just plain junk foods.


Student-centered learning

In what ways can IT promote student-centered atmosphere?

                Through the use of multimedia technology (using of PowerPoint presentation in teaching, audio-visual presentation, film showing, etc.), students can become interactive in the discussion, and they are creative in formulating answers and doing projects and homework.  As a result, learners become motivated to listen attentively to their teacher.

What are the attributes of a student-centered learning classroom?

Student-student interaction is highly promoted; the teacher allows his/her students on using technology with restrictions.  The teachers encourage the students to discover how they learn best and apply different strategies that would suit for the learners different intelligences.  Also, relationship between the teacher and students become more collaborative.

Here is a website wherein it tackles about the same topic;

As a future teacher, what interventions can you employ to create a student-centered learning?

A teacher should encourage collaboration not just between him/her and the student, but also, she/he must formulate plans for the students to collaborate and interact with each other during the discussions and activities.    In evaluating my students, I must consider their multiple intelligences, and then make use of different teaching strategies which would be beneficial for them.


Technology is everywhere.  It has significantly affected the daily routine in our lives.  Commencing from the time we wake up in the morning, we enjoy the benefits given by technology.  It plays a vital role in our lives not just in our home or workplace, it has specifically impacted alterations in education.

The Philippines, as a third world country, does not just struggle from its low economic spot but also from its competitive education system as well, back when the technology has not been that advanced compared today,.

Our country has gone through many developments currently, including our educational condition.  The Department of Education (DepEd) had took a mighty step towards improvement when the K+12 curriculum was instigated.  Mainly, it aims to enhance the level of education in the Philippines and level with the educational system of other countries who make use of this curriculum.

Technology provides the advantage of 24/7 communication, people nowadays have abundant sources of information and facts without even opening a book, with just a click, the data you need will be right in front of you.

As a student, we have to fathom that technology is just a tool in our academic life.  We must not be dependent on it. We have to be aware on certain rules and limitations towards the use of such gadgets. Still, we have to be academically honest because it is apparent that incidents regarding cheating is prevalent due to misuse of these tools.

“Technology is a gift of God.  After the gift of life it is perhaps the greatest of God’s gifts.  It is the mother of civilizations, of arts and of sciences,” – Freeman Dyson

Bridging the Generation Gap

Have you experienced generation gap in your family or in school?  Give some situation on how you can bridge this gap.

What is a generation gap?

As defined in an educational website I have visited, the term generation gap is defined as difference in the ways of thinking and perception in the people of two different generations which results in behavioural differences and sometimes, conflict among them.

Gap in the family

The most common experience of this gap is whenever my mother would scold me not eating lunch or dinner on time because I spend most of the time surfing the net or using my cell phone(and other gadget as well).  Then I would start bragging because I don’t want to eat yet which causes my mother’s impatience towards me.  Also, because I’m hooked in using social networking sites, instead of telling my problems to my family, I would just post it on my account on twitter (which is wrong).  The wrong use of technology makes gap in communicating with the family, we tend to seek for answers instantly in the internet and not on our family, it builds barrier to proper communication and bond with our family.

Gap in the school

Generation gap does not only happen between us and our parents, but to us and our teachers as well.  Because majority of the students possess their devices/gadgets, they would just want to have a soft copy of the lesson being tackled by the instructor.  They like a teacher who has an open mind with the way they teach, allows the use of gadgets in their discussions which entertains a good flow of ideas to the learners.  But some instructors are not well equipped with knowledge in using technology which makes the students to get bored during discussions producing a gap between the teacher and the learners.

So what is it for us to cope with those cited gaps? 

Generation gap for me is constant.  Even without the advancement of technology, there would still be misunderstandings and conflicts between every human race because of different beliefs, ideals, traditions, culture, etc.  Gaps would not be erased, it could only be decreased.  I think that what matters most is that we shall start to realize our differences, accept and adjust with it.

But due to technological advancement especially in this generation, the youth must not be controlled by technology; we should not allow it to use us.  And as a student, I have come to realize that  its also a matter of respect, it’s not just because we are the ones who are expert in using technology that we should have the right to rant about it against the elderly ones.   After all, we are all humans.

“The real danger is not that computers will begin to think like men, but that men will begin to think like computers.”
― Sydney J. Harris



Digital Ethics


Facebook has been a part of most people’s lives, especially teen agers.  This social networking site becomes phenomenal because of its wide array of offers to users.  It enables the users to add other people as their friends, and send them messages, update their profiles and notify their friends about themselves.  Also, you can be a member of a group organized by your school and be update to event, trending issues, or other matters.

As an ordinary teenager, I use Facebook twice or thrice weekly.  And as to this time wherein I could say that I have matured, I don’t post that much or upload my pictures or photo albums often.  I do believe that I should be careful to my posts or to the things that I do in Facebook.  I also make sure to adjust my privacy settings to a specific post that I do.

People are diverse. We differ on our opinions, choices, life experiences, and personalities.  As I went through my friends’ profiles, it is evident that they have similarities and differences in the way they make a status.

As I went through the different profiles, I have decided to compare the three different profiles I have visited.

Meddi Ann C. Vivero does not update her status that much.  But she is fond of posting photos with inspirational quotes.  She also updates her profile as to her profile and cover photos, her about (school, hometown, etc.), she doesn’t have that friends in her account and she does not have many conversations with others as well.


Krizelle Infante’s profile contained various photos wherein she’s tagged by her other friends.  She also does not share many information about herself, but it is evident that she is fond of reading books and her posts mostly are about updates of the books that she loves that are adapted into movies.

Jay Ramboyong is updated in his profile; he posts his status almost every day which contains various inspirational quotes and random posts.  He also likes watching various TV programs and is also fond of reading books.


According to an article I have read, there are “12 Things Students Should Never Do on Social Media”, and as I review it and relate it to the three profiles I have visited, we can say that they are a good user of this site. And for me, only the no.12 on the list is likely to be transparent to other people’s profile which is, they post emotionally.  Others might not think of its effect instantly but it sure affects us (on how others might think of us). As we become more mature (not just in age but also in personality), we must first consider the things that would likely to happen because of information and posts we display to the public.

Facebook has changed our lives.  Asides from its advantage (ease of communication with others), it also has disadvantage like being addicted to its usage.  But it depends to us on how we will use this site effectively and responsibly.

We cannot judge a person completely by his or her own Facebook profile, but it is sure a good way to start.  So be mindful to things that you post.

Here is a video telling us what digital ethics is all about:

Visited website: